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Digestive Endoscopy

Gastroscopy 

Gastroscopy, or esophageal-gastric-duodenoscopy, is a medical procedure to view the upper digestive tract (esophagus, stomach and duodenum) through a thin and flexible probe (endoscope) that has an attached video camera that transmits images to a monitor.

Fasting for at least 8 hours before the exam is a requirement.

The patient is usually sedated during the procedure, to minimize discomfort and improve tolerance.

 

Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is a medical procedure to view the lower digestive tract (rectum, colon, large intestine and, sometimes the terminal ileum, which is the final small intestine segment), using a thin and flexible probe (colonoscope) that is inserted through the anus. This probe has an attached video camera that transmit images to a monitor.

The colon must be completely cleansed for this exam and this is achieved using laxatives.

The patient is usually sedated during the procedure, to minimize discomfort and improve tolerance.

To prepare for the exam, the patient must follow a strict liquid diet the day before and take laxatives.

 

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography (ERC)

This medical procedure allows assessment of biliary ducts (bile drainage from the liver to the intestine) and pancreatic ducts.
Sometimes, the opening needs to be widened with a small cut in the sphincter that controls bile flow. On other occasions, it is necessary to remove stones from the ducts or to place plastic or metal tubing to ensure bile flow.

 

Esophageal manometry 

This exam measures motor activity of the esophagus and its sphincters, both basal and after swallowing, recording changes in pressure and muscular contraction patterns in different esophageal segments.

Esophageal manometry is vitally important in patients with swallowing problems and in those with gastroesophageal reflux, who could be candidates for corrective surgery for the condition.

 

Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring

Esophageal pH monitoring is a test to quantify acid reflux from the stomach to the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux).

A very thin pH-measuring tube is inserted in the esophagus. This probe is connected to a miniaturized portable receiver that records ambulatory measurements over 24 hours, while the patient carries on with his or her daily routine.

This exam is particularly useful in patients being evaluated for gastroesophageal reflux. 

 

Therapeutic endoscopy

Endoscopic studies not only help in diagnoses; they are useful to treat certain conditions, such as:

 

  • Bleeding ulcers
  • Bleeding esophageal varicose veins (varicose vein tie-off)
  • Polyp resection (endoscopic polypectomy)
  • Esophageal stricture dilation
  • Placement of feeding catheters (endoscopic gastrostomy)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC)